PFOS, PFOA, PFNA And PFHxS Clenaup

Contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) listed by the US EPA and NJDEP are:  PFOS – perfluorooctance sulfonate, PFOA – perflurooctanoic acid, PFNA – perfluorononanoic acid and PFHxS – perfluorohexane sulfonate

Before considering the cleanup options, it is very important that investigator understand that how there chemicals are introduced in the environment, its physical, chemical structures and it’s stability.  

PFAS are divided into two categories: polymers and non-polymers.  Polymers have a long-chain and it is more stable in the environment. 
The polymer category includes fluoropolymers, perfluoropolyethers, and side-chain fluorinated polymers. Polymers generally have very different physical, chemical, and biological properties than do nonpolymer chemical substances of low molecular weight. Non-polymers category includes perfluoroalkyl substances and polyfluoroalkyl substances. 

 PFOS / PFOA applied to create waterproof and water repellent textiles and clothing

Four technologies are considered for the cleanup.  

  1.  Granular activated carbon (GAC) is commonly used to adsorb natural organic compounds, taste and odor compounds, and synthetic organic chemicals in drinking water treatment
  2. Iron Exchange help removal of  per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) using anion exchange method
  3. Membrane Separations technique helps removal of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) using anion exchange resins